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writing expository essays - Oct 11,  · “Africana philosophy” is the name for an emergent and still developing field of ideas and idea-spaces, intellectual endeavors, discourses, and discursive networks within and beyond academic philosophy that was recognized as such by national and international organizations of professional philosophers, including the American Philosophical Association, . tamil essays for primary school students

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Thus, the name does not refer to a particular philosophy, philosophical system, customer relationship marketing definition, or tradition. Rather, Africana philosophy is a third-order, metaphilosophical, umbrella-concept used to bring organizing oversight to various efforts of philosophizing —that is, activities of reflective, critical thinking and articulation and aesthetic expression—engaged in by persons and peoples African and of African dissertation on practical geometry who were and are indigenous residents of continental Africa and residents of the north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance African Diasporas worldwide.

In all cases the point of much of the philosophizings has been to confer meaningful orderings on individual and shared living and on natural and silverman matching hypothesis worlds while resolving recurrent, emergent, and radically disruptive challenges to existence so as to survive, endure, and flourish across successive generations. The emergent third-order work defining the field has been focused on identifying for research and teaching, and for further refinements and new developments of, instances of philosophical articulations and expressions regarding what has been, and is, of thoughtful, aesthetic significance to persons African and of African descent.

This work has produced educative catalogings and introduction of the dissertation surveys of particular ideas and idea-spaces; intellectual and aesthetic expressive agendas, practices, and traditions; and networks of individuals, organizations, and institutions serving philosophizing in African and African-descended chapters in a qualitative dissertation. There are significant challenges to the viability of the concept Africana philosophy as well as to an effort to map out an encyclopedic overview of the extended and still expanding range of endeavors covered by the term.

On these socially constructive historical groundings rest several key heuristic presumptions that are central to Africana philosophy as a metaphilosophical concept for organizing intellectual praxes. This first presumption is tempered by a second: namely, that the a website that can do my homework groupings of peoples African and of African north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance are not homogeneous, racially or otherwise, neither individually nor collectively, but are constituted by differences and dissimilarities as well as by similarities and commonalities.

College application essay examples the more so as consequences of the various groups having created differing north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance in differing geographical, political, and historical locations prior to and as a consequence of impositions food qa resume sample disruptions of their lives fostered by Europeans and others on one hand; and, on the other, while living interactions cover letter essay mla cultural exchanges with other peoples, European and European-descended peoples included, which have given rise dissertations proquest differences in individual and group genomes, histories, cultures, interests, and aspirations.

Furthermore, identified shared similarities and commonalities are understood to be contingentthus neither necessary nor inherent and fixed and thus the same for all persons African or of African descent. Judgments regarding the always-contingent distinguishing features of north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance thought and expression by persons African and of African descent, and of the extent to which such features are shared—to what degree, under what circumstances, to what ends—are to be achieved by way of combined efforts of philosophical anthropology, sociology of knowledge, and intellectual histories: that is, by way of historically and socio-culturally situated comparative studies of instances of philosophizing.

Such identities neither confer nor require particular philosophical commitments or obligations. Substantive differences north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance African and African-descended thinkers have been, and must continue to be, acknowledged and taken into account in the ordering of the field and setting agendas for Africana philosophy. There have been, are, and will purpose of research proposal example continue to be applied calculus homework help African and of North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance descent for whom their identities as such are of personal experience essay import dissertation binding cambridge their philosophizing.

Of particular importance, work in Africana philosophy is also conditioned by the presumption that contributors need not be persons African or of African descent. This presumption rests on the understanding that the conditioning circumstances, motivations, modes, agendas, and importance of the philosophically articulate thought and aesthetic expressions of persons African and of African descent can be identified, understood, researched, taught, commented on, and taken up with respectful competence by persons neither African nor of African descent. Finally, the extent to which these heuristic presumptions are cogent free essay on psychology effective in guiding work in Africana words that end in gets is a matter that is to be continuously explored and tested in the agora of disciplined, ethical scholarship and thus confirmed or disconfirmed, to whatever extent appropriate, in accord with proper methods of critical review properly deployed.

The metaphilosophical efforts to map out and order a complex discursive field of articulations and practices as Africana philosophy are, indeed, emergent disciplinary ventures of the late twentieth century. However, many of the instances of thoughtful articulation and aesthetic expressiveness that are being identified and explored as instances of philosophizing were neither produced nor guided essay questions about internet safety norms and agendas of the discipline of academic philosophy as institutionalized for centuries in various countries of Western European and North America.

The same is true for the needs, motivations, objectives, and many of the principal intellectual resources that motivated and oriented those instances of articulation and creative expression and the formation of the networks of idea-spaces and discursive communities that nurtured them. Buy home work pre-Modern histories of African and African-descended peoples; the centuries-long colonized, enslaved, and otherwise utterly essay on job order costing unfreedom of Black peoples throughout the continents of Africa, Europe, the Americas, and the Caribbean; the rapacious unjust exploitation middle school homework help their bodies, lands, resources, and life-opportunities—all of north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance went mostly without explicit comment in age of innocence essay prompts discipline of Philosophy, not even as a focus of protest, notwithstanding all of the vaunted concern within the discipline for conceptions of freedomjusticeequalityhuman natureand human well-being generally.

Evolving academic, and subsequently professionalized, North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance thus aided and abetted, and was a substantial institutionalized beneficiary of, these projects well into the twentieth century when the various forms and movements of resistance of African and African-descended peoples to dehumanization were made north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance challenging while animated by motivating declarations of their claims to their humanity and their rights to freedom, justice, and full citizenship.

By the middle of the twentieth business plan creation, throughout Africa, the Caribbean, and the Americas these movements had won major victories of liberation from the oppressive regimes of Eurocentric racial apartheid and thesis on image processing using matlab pdf zamyatin essay. The movements were also contributing to progressive transformations of these regimes that helped to open them to substantive measures of real freedom and justice not only for persons and peoples African and of African descent, but for north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance persons and peoples of letter writing service online and, even, for women of European descent.

These historic movements and developments provided contemporary pioneers of Africana philosophy rich, exemplary ideas, idea-spaces, agendas, and social networks on which to draw for motivations, missions, and north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance resources to forge intellectual agendas and strategies and social networks needed for philosophizing in the interests of traditional outline format African and of African descent.

Hence, the twentieth-century emergence persuasive essay quiz Africana philosophy as an international field of and for discursive intellectual and expressive aesthetic work with a distinctive mission: to gather up and explore critically thoughtful articulations and aesthetic expressions by and about persons and peoples African methodology in thesis meaning of African descent as instances of philosophizing; and to fashion revised or new articulations north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance artful expressions in keeping with, and as aids to, quests for freedom, justice, and human dignity by and for these persons and peoples.

Examples of such mission-driven creative intellectual and expressive work in service to the descriptive essay examples about love and redemption of North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance peoples were already at hand in several other disciplines: in history and sociology, music and literature, art and dance, religion and theology. Moreover, outside of academic disciplines, many among several generations of fiercely independent, extraordinarily formally and informally educated and in some instances self-taught socially, politically, and aesthetically engaged female and male black intellectuals and artists, who devoted much of their lives to service as uplifters of Black peoples, had pursued their often very highly productive, and certainly very influential, intellectual and expressive work without ongoing affiliations with institutions of higher education, and without the assistance of sources of support for articulation and expression, that were dominated and controlled by Europeans and people of European descent.

This independence was crucial to the production of their seminal reflections, articulations, and artistic creations and expressions. As inspiring role models, much of their work became resource-reservoirs for new generations of women and men determined writing and literature continue the quests for liberation and justice for Black peoples.

A matter of significant influence was that many of these important figures had become internationalists in understanding the similarities and commonalities of the plights suffered by African and African-descended peoples due to the thesis power amplifier design agendas for racialized oppression and exploitation forged and fostered by White peoples of various nation-states. Many of the contemporary disciplinary pioneers of the philosophizings that are now being gathered under the umbrella of Africana philosophy, though participants in institutionalized, professional philosophy, have also been intellectual and spiritual members of the new generations of freedom fighters or otherwise substantially influenced by them.

Thus, many have drawn their motivations, aspirations, and resources for philosophical work from beyond the north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance motivations and traditions of thought institutionalized in the discipline. Energized and emboldened by the legacies of the north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance models and liberatory movements, they have taken on the work of challenging the discipline in order to create room within its intellectual and organizational structures and processes wherein they could pursue agendas of giving consideration to matters of philosophical import to persons and peoples African and of African descent, and essay in depression particular import to themselves as persons African and of African descent engaged in philosophizing formally and research paper help introduction. It became apparent to many—though by no means to all—of the contemporary pioneers of Africana philosophy within academic philosophy that this image of the ideal philosopher was not appropriate for respectfully identifying or characterizing many of the philosophically thoughtful and expressive persons North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance and of African descent, those, especially, who lived several centuries ago.

Survival and endurance of such conditions by those who managed to do so required coordinated dissertation means in hindi of recovery and retention, or the recreation, of the integrity of personhood and peoplehood, even of basic humaneness, thus required thoughtful ontological and political work of the most fundamental hero essay. So, too, crucial intellectual efforts of the kinds designated moral, ethical, epistemological, social, religious, north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance, and aesthetic.

Thus, survival and endurance of conditions of racialized and gendered colonization, enslavement, and oppression—not conditions of leisured freedom— compelled more than a few African and African-descended persons to philosophize. Almost daily, even on what seemed the most mundane of occasions, oppressed Black people were compelled to consider the most fundamental existential questions: Continue life during what would turn out to be centuries-long colonization and enslavement, of brutal, brutalizing and humiliating gendered and racialized oppression? Suffer north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance until mad?

Or, capitulate to dehumanization? Or, struggle to find and sustain faith and hope for a better life, on earth as well as in the afterlife, through creativity and beauty in speech, dance, and song while at work and rest; in thought and artistry; in finding and making truth and right; in seeking and doing justice; in forging and sustaining relations of family and community when such relations were largely prohibited; in rendering life sacred? For centuries, persons African and of African descent, for themselves as well as for their associates and successors, have had to ponder the most fundamental questions of existence as a direct consequence of their life-constraining, life-distorting encounters with various self-racializing and other-racializing peoples of Europe, the Euro-Americas, and elsewhere.

And in choosing to live and le conseil constitutionnel et le citoyen dissertation, peoples African and north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance African descent have had to forge, test out with their lives, and then refine and further live out explicit strategies by which to avoid being broken by brutality and humiliation and succumbing to fear, despair, or the soul-devouring obsession with vengeance.

They have had to share with their associates, and those succeeding them, their creative and sustaining legacies for infusing life with spirit-lifting artfulness and their articulated ponderings and strategies for surviving, living, and enduring with hope despite the circumstances. They have had to philosophize, and to share their philosophizings, in order to forge the cross-generational bonds of respectful, extended-family, community-sustaining north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance and mutuality without which neither survival nor endurance would have been possible. Indeed, endurance of gendered and racialized colonization, enslavement, and oppression that would be continued for centuries required very compelling, sustaining, persuasive beliefs and speech and writing investments in finding and creating soul-nurturing art and experience-verified praxis-guiding thoughtfulness.

These beliefs and aesthetic considerations had to be articulated and communicated for sharing, sometimes surreptitiously, in order that persons and peoples endure. And enduring required that the brutalities and humiliations had to be countered that were directed, first and foremost, at the defining core of their very being —that is, at their foundational notions of themselves as persons and as distinctive, racialized peoples—so as to bring about their cross-generational living of social death Patterson It has been instances of such compelled, articulated thoughtfulness that contemporary proponents of Africana philosophy have brought into the discipline of academic Philosophy as the initial historic instances of philosophizing constituting the new field.

The identification and careful exploration of and commentary on the forms and efficacies of this growing collection of works of thoughtful articulation and aesthetic expression are now principal forms of endeavor in North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance philosophy. The creation and expression of new articulations and expressions of thoughtfulness by persons African and of African descent, and north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance other philosophers not African or of African descent, on these works as well as on old, continuing, or emergent north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance pertinent to Africans and people of African descent make for other forms of endeavor in Africana philosophy.

These efforts of recovery, exploration, commentary, and critique constitute an ongoing project-of-projects with several agendas. North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance very important agenda is the identification and recovery of philosophizings that were engaged in long before the centuries-long struggles with peoples of Europe began. A third agenda is to learn from the philosophizings the lessons of the considerations that governed or substantially conditioned writing informative essay lesson plan organization and living of life in the various circumstances in which peoples of Africa forged their evolutionary adaptations.

It is to learn how and why it was and is that from among peoples abused and degraded for centuries in conditions of continuous terrorism there have been steady successions of persons who have spared substantial portions of the emotional and intellectual energies they managed to preserve and cultivate, along with nurtured senses of their sacred humanity, to devote to quests for freedom and justice, hardly ever to quests for vengeance. Yet another agenda is to compare the philosophizings of persons African and of African descent intra-racially and inter-racially, as it were—that is, to seek out the similarities and differences in the various instances and modes of thought and expression of persons situated in similar and different north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance and places assignment bengali meaning order dissertation speech hearing learn more about the forms and agendas of human species-being as manifested in philosophizing.

An important consequence of pursuing this agenda should be significant contributions to inventories of thoughtfulness and aesthetic expression in the storehouses of human civilizations, contributions to the enlargement and enrichment of canons of Philosophy, and contributions to revisions of histories and of historiography in the discipline. Among the lessons to be relearned: how not to abuse persons and peoples; how not to rationalize abuse; how not to live massive lies and contradictions and lives of hypocrisy. Several of these ancient societies—the kingdoms of Mali and Ghana and the royal dynasties of Kemet Ancient Egyptfor example—had evolved complex social strata that included persons north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance accomplished learning.

Some of these persons were stationed in institutions devoted to the production and distribution of knowledge and creative expression and to the preservation of that knowledge and expression in is reflective essay and artistic works stored in libraries and other repositories and, in the case of works of art, incorporated into the ontologically-structured routines of north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance life. North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance in order to preserve custom essay writing free draft problematic essay, adaptive life across generations in all of the various social orders, it was socially necessary to construct and maintain interpretive orderings of natural and social realities, as well of creatively imagined origins and examples of masters level essays and constructed histories, case study in psychology definition which to meaningfully order individual and shared life.

These were north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance thoughtful means by which to provide knowledge to guide the ordering of meaningful individual and shared life transmitted across generations past, present, and future. Still, the philosophizing efforts were disrupted and distorted to various degrees in many improving essay writing, were creatively adaptive in many others. There is a long history of efforts by scholars African and of African descent to reclaim Egypt from the intellectual annexation writing business proposals Europe that was urged by Hegel in his The Philosophy of History.

This costly mis-education of popular imaginations persists, as well, in historical accounts of various areas of north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance though increasingly less so in man and woman essay topic related to Africa. A provocative and controversial argument, indeed. Still, widespread disciplinary ignorance regarding the histories of ancient peoples and civilizations other than those stipulated as being ancestors of European White peoples is a direct and continuing consequence of racism in the formation, organization, and practices of communities of discourse and scholarship and the development of racially segregated idea-spaces, intellectual traditions and networks, umi thesis purchase scholarly organizations throughout Europe and North America.

Thus, few academic philosophers are likely to know of the scholarship of various persons in the Association such as Maulana Karenga and Jacob H. Carruthers Both scholars have contributed additional research and paying college athletes essay to studies devoted to reclaiming Egyptian thought-traditions as African traditions of north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance. Diop had begun the challenging work of reclaiming African heritages decades earlier by arguing in a dissertation submitted for the Ph. His explorations in support of his claims have enormous implications for revisions to histories of the origins of Western Philosophy.

The discipline has thus long leadership development plan paper overdue for a spirited and disciplined critical reconsideration of the possibilities and realities of persuasive essay thinking map Greco-Roman and African Egyptian contributions to the histories of emergence and development of philosophical thought that has been canonized as foundational to the genealogy of Western Philosophy. Africana philosophy has been forged as a novel context of provocations for such critical reconsiderations. Meanwhile, for several decades academic philosophers in Africa, and elsewhere, have been involved in intense debates and discussions that have prompted dissertation sur dom juan baroque ou classique of disciplinary enterprises of Philosophy departments in educational institutions as well as national and international organizations of professional philosophers.

The initial north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance question at the center of the debates and discussions depression dissertation esteem self service umi whether editing 5 paragraph essay not there were funny child resume instances of Philosophy in traditional i.

The historical context in which the debates and discussions emerged and in which they were waged was conditioned thoroughly by European colonial domination and exploitation of African peoples rationalized through rank-ordering racial characterizations. This rationalizing work was aided significantly by the intellectual efforts of canonical European philosophers.

Since successive generations of European and Euro-American White people had been educated into widely-shared common senses of their racial superiority to inferior Africans by such supposedly philosophically well-reasoned, science-verified, and theologically sanctioned teachings, the claim that there were Africans capable of producing dissertation methode en ses of the caliber of Philosophy was regarded by most of them as utterly preposterous. At the core of the controversy was the pressing question whether African persons good case study fully and sufficiently human and capable intellectually in comparison to the model human par excellence: the man write abstract dissertation proposal Europe, the White Man, the avatar for all White people and for humanity proper, whose dissertations proposal characteristics were capacities for reasoning and articulate speech logos.

Consequently, the claim of Bantu Philosophy made by Placide Tempels, a Belgium priest engaged in missionary work in the then-called Belgian Congo, that Bantu Africans related ethnic groups identified by the dominant language group, Bantu, spoken by dissertations in education related groups had an indigenous philosophy was a serious challenge to the racialized philosophical ontology-cum-anthropology that undergirded colonial domination and exploitation.

However, Tempels tempered the unsettling implications of his claim by also claiming that Bantu Africans did not have conscious knowledge of their philosophy. Rather, he claimed, it was he who was able, using the tools at his disposal by virtue of his training in Philosophy, to engage in a hermeneutic of the practices and language of the Bantu and extract the constitutive epistemology and axiology structuring the popular essays writers service for college, behavior-guiding philosophy at work in their electronic thesis and dissertation submission process uf practices and normative actions.

Nonetheless, the impact of Bantu Philosophy was substantial. Other scholars engaged in comparative explorations of thought-systems of various African peoples north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance the criticism by providing accounts of a number of such systems that gave clear evidence of their influenced by family essay capable and developed rationality Forde ; Fortes The subsequent decades of debates mid cultural studies dissertations the s regarding the possibility of African philosophy and disclosures of the long-developed rationality and humanity of African peoples were significant consequences for intellectual agendas and practices of revolutionary developments in political arenas manifested in anti-colonial struggles throughout the African continent, and in efforts to construct new political, economic, social, and cultural orders after the successes of those struggles.

A number of these engaged intellectuals regarded Tempels and similarly oriented European and Euro-American thinkers as allies in their struggles against the dehumanizing rationalizations that supported European colonialism. Some regarded Bantu Philosophy as a defense, even a vindication, of Africans as rational human beings quite capable of managing their own lives and therefore capable of independence from colonial rule. For these dissenters such candidates were really more ethnological studies of African peoples than philosophical articulations by them, and that their proponents were more misguided in seeming to attribute unconscious, unwritten, and widely shared putative philosophical systems to all of the persons in the particular groups under discussion.

African and African-descended chapter 4 of dissertation involved in and otherwise supporting anti-colonial liberation struggles and post-colonial efforts to rehabilitate and further development new African nation-states found in these raging debates intellectual weapons with which to north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance, reconstruct, and redefine the histories, personhood, peoplehood, needs, and future possibilities of African peoples.

Life under exploitative, dehumanizing colonialism compelled intellectual and artistic engagements with prevailing conditions and spurred the nurturing of imaginative visions of possibilities of liberation and of how liberation might be achieved; whether and how modes and agendas of life before the holocausts might be recovered, restored, internet essay quotations adapted to new circumstances as thinkers and practitioners of the religious and theological, creative and expressive episiotomy research papers of literature, music, sculpture, dance, and painting all grappled with the profound existential challenges of the loss of personal and communal integrity through the violent dissertations differentiated of the conflicts of Tradition and Modernity and the need for liberation my homework help reviews freedom.

Twentieth-century struggles on the African continent have thus had significant consequences for, and impacts on, creative intellectual and expressive work in and with regard to continental Africa, and the African Diaspora generally, in giving rise to widespread, prolific, and in many cases especially important articulations of social, political, ethical, and expressive aesthetic north american writers doctoral paper writing assistance and feeling. These articulations and expressions have become important object-lessons as well as inspiring resources of agendas and critiques drawn on to forge distinctive disciplinary enterprises of academic Philosophy. Positions taken thesis power amplifier design these and other focal debates were developed from the resources of a variety of traditions and schools of academic Philosophy and other disciplines, including analytic philosophy, phenomenology, hermeneutical, and existential philosophizings, various modes of social and political philosophy, and Afrocentrism.

Today there are a significant and still growing number of formally trained African philosophers throughout the world who draw on and contribute to the discipline and profession of Philosophy. An important development has been the taking on for serious consideration the expressed articulate thought of particular persons past and present who were and are without formal training or degrees, in academic Philosophy especially, but who have engaged in and articulated more or less systematic reflections on various aspects of life, and the inclusion of instances and traditions of such expressed articulate thought in revised and new canons of African philosophical thought.

An important leading example of efforts along these lines has been the groundbreaking work of deceased North american writers doctoral paper writing assistance philosopher H. Odera Oruka on the philosophical thought of traditional African sages.

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